SharePoint does not support FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption and hashing: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc263215(v=office.14).aspx. Microsoft has not updated the documentation for SharePoint 2013, but after noticing some issues after an installation I can confidently tell you that it is still not supported. While running scripts to create the SharePoint 2013 Enterprise Service Applications I got flooded with a sea of red error messages for 2 particular service applications: The Secure Store Service and the Search Service. The search service created the required components, but when browsing the Search Administration page it said “Unable to retrieve topology component health states. This may be because the admin component is not up and running.” The Secure Store Service displayed an access denied error (“Sorry, this site hasn’t been shared with you”) every time we tried to manage it in Central Admin. In Eventvwr application logs we noticed the following error (I was able to reproduce this in a test VM):
System.Reflection.TargetInvocationException: Exception has been thrown by the target of an invocation. —> System.InvalidOperationException: This implementation is not part of the Windows Platform FIPS validated cryptographic algorithms.
at System.Security.Cryptography.SHA256Managed..ctor()

The key piece here is “Windows Platform FIPS”, which can be enabled in 2 places:
1) Group Policy: Check secpol.msc under Local Policies > Securiy Options. There will be a policy called: System cryptography: Use FIPS 140 compliant cryptographic algorithms, including encryption, hashing and signing algorithms
2) If group policy isn’t enforcing this registry key then possibly FIPS was switched on manually or is part of the O/S image. Check here to make sure the “enabled” DWORD value is not set to “1” here:
HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\FIPSAlgorithmPolicy\

Stay away FIPS..stay away

-AJB